Since much of the US population is unwisely bathing itself 24/7/365 in data-carrying, pulsed, Radio-Frequency Microwave Radiation (RF/MW radiation), it is important to understand what we are actually doing to ourselves, our loved ones and our environment. Duration of exposure to these micro-second pulses of electrical power, not intensity, is the most important factor.
Therefore, always-on wireless infrastructure antennas are hazardous to one’s health — that is why wireless telecommunications base station antennas belong 200 feet off the ground and at least 2,500 feet away from homes, schools, hospitals, public buildings, parks and wilderness areas. That is why installation of so-called “Small Cell” Distributed Antenna Systems (DAS) anywhere near second-story bedroom windows is a disaster — no matter what government guideline is quoted to justify this assault.
This page is the first in a four-part series about the main sources of RF/MW radiation in our lives and the simple, low cost, common sense solution to the problem: wired Internet access via Fiber-Optic, Coaxial or Ethernet cables. See also the 4G Primer, the 5G Primer and the Wired Primer. The common thread that ties of Wi-Fi, 4G and 5G together is the reliance on OFDM/OFDMA modulation — sophisticated mathematical transformations that pack huge amounts of digital data onto carrier microwaves in order to transmit the data through the atmosphere. The pulsed microwaves either penetrate or reflect off of anything in their path: any flora, fauna and mandmade structures you can imagine, including human adults and children, pets, and already threatened species of pollinators birds, bees and butterflies.
What is Wi-Fi and why should you turn off your Wireless Router/Access Point?
Pulsed Microwave Radiation is the Foundation of Wireless Mobile Data. Microwave Radiation, when used to transfer data from Point-A to Point-B, is comprised of micro-second pulses of electrical power sprayed through the atmosphere. Microwaves either penetrate or reflect off of anything or anyone in their path, The data transferred are electrical pulses or ”bullets” traveling at the speed of light, about 670 million miles per hour. These pulses of data can cause biological harm to many living organisms, including humans.
How Do Microwaves Radiate Over Long Distances?
Electromagnetic waves are produced whenever charged particles are accelerated. In the near-field region (within 3-4 wavelengths from the source antenna charges), waves are incoherent, erratic and choppy with high micro-second peaks of Electric and Magnetic fields. This creates a toxic “hell-stew” of powerful zaps, crackles and pops that are difficult to characterize with any degree of accuracy. Unfortunately, this is the range where people typically hold their wireless devices. Whenever one sends/receives digital data wirelessly from their device, a toxic, spherical cloud 36″ to 48″ in diameter forms around the device, exposing everyone nearby to peaks of RF/MW radiation. Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) is neither an accurate nor a scientific measure of the hazards created by this mixture of Electric and Magnetic fields in the near-field region. SAR is a misleading ‘average of an average’, designed to hide the peaks of Electric and Magnetic power that surround one’s device. These peaks of power interrupt the sensitive electrical signals of our body and causes DNA and neurological damage, suppress the immune system, and interrupt hormone production and regulation.
In the far-field, the Electric Field (E, in blue) and Magnetic Field (B, in red) orient themselves at a 90 degree angle from each other
In the far-field region (beyond 3-4 wavelengths from the source antenna charges), electromagnetic waves become coherent and radiate as self-propagating, transverse, oscillating waves of Electric Fields and Magnetic Fields, as depicted in the diagram, above. The diagram shows an EMR wave propagating in the far-field region from left to right along the X axis. The Electric Field (E) in blue is in a vertical plane (along the Z axis) and the Magnetic Field (B) in red is in a horizontal plane (along the Y axis). Radiating Electric and Magnetic Fields in the far-field region are always in phase and oriented at 90 degrees to each other. Directly below is a 2D animation of the near-field region of an antenna, showing the activity in the X and Z axes. The blue Electric Fields eventually begin radiating at some distance from the antenna.
Slow motion animation: near-field chaos and far-field radiation from a dipole antenna
How Do Microwaves Send and Receive Digital Data?
A wavelength carries massive numbers of erratic pulses of digital data, that wirelessly transmit text, image, audio and video data to and from computers, tablets, phones and the (predicted) billions of IoT machines, appliances, “things,” sensors and devices. Unfortunately, the microwaves used for this purpose are not the smooth sine waves you may have learned about in text books that describe the transmission of visible light (430 to 770 THz) or Alternating Current electrical power (60 Hz). Natural Electromagnetic Fields (EMF) come from two main sources: the sun, and thunderstorm activity, Man-made, pulsed RF/MW radiation differs from natural EMF. Manmade Radio-Frequency Electromagnetic Fields (RF/EMF) and the resulting RF/MW radiation are defined by the equation: c = f λ, where c = the speed of light, f = the frequency, and λ = the wavelength. This means that since c is a constant, as frequency increases, wavelength decreases. Frequency is measured in a unit called Hertz, which represents the number of cycles or oscillations of a wave in one second. The unit Hertz is named after Heinrich Rudolph Hertz a German scientist who first demonstrated that electromagnetic waves radiate at a constant speed. In order to transmit digital data, an antenna’s microchips distort the waves’ shape or pace to modulate (encode) the data stream onto the carrier waves at the source before the antenna transmits them. At the destination, other microchips demodulate (decode) the data stream so the destination device can display the text/image or play the audio/video. A modem is a device that literally modulates and demodulates data streams; engineers shortened the name to modem. Each antenna in this scheme is a two-way microwave transmitter/receiver. There are an infinite number of combinations of wavelength, frequency, intensity and modulation, the mathematical transformations that encode data onto a carrier wave. Each combination is a new digital fingerprint that uniquely identifies a new manmade toxic agent that, when transmitted into the air, instantly fills our homes, schools, workplaces or public spaces. Below is a list of the Microwave frequencies that – with the advent of 5G – will be added to our already RF/MW radiation-saturated airwaves.
The Panoply of Microwave Frequencies/Wavelengths in a 4G/5G World
- 5G: 600 MHz = waves 20 inches long
- 4G: 700 MHz = waves 17 inches long
- 3G/4G: 800 MHz = waves 15 inches long
- 3G/4G: 900 MHz = waves 13 inches long
- 3G/4G: 1800 MHz = waves 7 inches long
- 3G/4G: 2100 MHz = waves 6 inches long
- Wi-Fi: 2450 MHz = waves 5 inches long (unlicensed)
- 5G: 3100 MHz to 3550 MHz = waves 3.8 to 3.3 inches long
- 5G: 3550 MHz to 3700 MHz = waves 3.3 to 3.2 inches long
- 5G: 3700 MHz to 4200 MHz = waves 3.2 to 2.8 inches long
- 5G: 4200 to 4900 MHz = waves 2.8 to 2.4 inches long
- Wi-Fi: 5800 MHz = waves 2.0 inches long (unlicensed)
- 5G: 24,250 to 24,450 MHz = waves 0.5 inch long
- 5G: 25,050 to 25,250 MHz = waves 0.5 inch long
- 5G: 25,250 to 27,500 MHz = waves 0.4 inch long
- 5G: 27,500 to 29,500 MHz = waves 0.4 inch long
- 5G: 31,800 to 33,400 MHz = waves 0.4 inch long
- 5G: 37,000 to 40,000 MHz = waves 0.3 inch long
- 5G: 42,000 to 42,500 MHz = waves 0.3 inch long
- 5G: 57,000 to 64,500 MHz = waves 0.3 inch long (unlicensed)
- 5G: 64,000 to 71,000 MHz = waves 0.2 inch long
- 5G: 71,000 to 76,000 MHz = waves 0.2 inch long
- 5G: 81,000 to 86,000 MHz = waves 0.1 inch long
All of the waves listed above are examples of both Microwaves and Radio waves, therefore, scientists use the term Radio-Frequency Microwave Radiation (RF/MW radiation) to describe this entire range of wavelengths/frequencies.
Radio waves are from 1 mm to 100,000,000 meters (frequency of 300,000 MHz down to 3 Hz)
Microwaves are from 1 mm to 1 meter (frequency of 300,000 MHz down to 300 MHz)
Microwaves have different properties, depending on their wavelength. The longer waves (20″ down to 5″) travel further and penetrate deeper into buildings and living tissue. The shorter waves (0.5″ down to 0.1″) are called millimeter waves (mm-waves) because they measure from 10 mm (at 30,000 MHz), down to 1 mm (at 300,000 MHz). The mm-waves are not as efficient because they don’t travel as far, tend to reflect off of buildings, and deposit mainly into the eyes and skins of living organisms.
Millimeter waves (from 10-mm|30GHz to 1-mm|300GHz) are readily absorbed by the atmosphere and by the eyes and skin of living organisms
In the first quarter of 2017, the US population was being irradiated primarily by the following pulsed microwaves:
- 700 million to 2.1 billion microwaves per second for 2G/3G/4G mobile data sent to cell phones
- 2.4 billion to 5.8 billion microwaves per second for Wi-Fi data to tablets/laptops
In the second-half of 2017, if Verizon, AT&T and others wireless carriers have their way, the US population will be radiated with additional, pulsed microwaves (24 billion to 90 billion microwaves per second) for 5G services and for navigation-assisted cars.
As with any toxic agent, the proper way to evaluate its toxicity is to consider not just the rate of exposure (as the Federal RF/MW radiation guidelines do), but consider total exposure over time. Below is a graph of RF/MW radiation exposures from Wi-Fi of an elementary school student using a wireless iPad. One can see extremely high peaks of electrical power. These peaks cannot be seen using SAR tests.
The intense peaks of RF/MW radiation and total exposure over time (not the average rate of exposure), are what impacts health the most.
In May of 2016, scientists at the US Federal National Toxicology Program released “partial findings” from the $25 million study on cellphone radiation, that found that both hyperplasias (abnormal increases in volume of a tissue or organ caused by the formation and growth of new normal cells) and tumors occur at significantly higher rates in the presence of continuous RF/MW radiation,
Disregarding these findings, six short weeks later, the FCC approved a move to 5G, and the wireless industry got to work installing Distributed Antenna Systems on utility poles as quickly as they possibly could. Some antennas have been placed as close as 20 feet from second story bedroom windows and will spray 4G or 5G RF/MW radiation 24/7/365 into these bedrooms.. Cancer clusters have been documented for people living closer than 2,000 feet to mobile communications base stations,.Antennas for mobile communications base stations should never be lower than 200 feet, and never closer than 2,000 feet to people and other living organisms.
Massive electromagnetic pollution is spiraling out of control, with both Industry and Government denying the scientific proof of harm from RF/MW radiation. Our Government and the Wireless Industry should not transmit digital data wirelessly, using the data-dense modulation schemes: Orthogonal Frequency-Division Multiplexing (OFDM/OFDMA) used in Wi-Fi, 4G/LTE and 5G — because the US Government has already proven that the data-sparse 2G modulation is hazardous. We must, instead, transmit data from Point A to Point B to every business, every home, every school and farm with far superior fiber optic cables.