Radiofrequency Microwave Radiation Exposure Guidelines

Dr. Andrew A. Marino on the Hazards of EMFs and RF Microwave Radiation

Are SAR measurements useful in your research?
More here

In connection with understanding mobile phone fields, none whatsoever. I think they’re meaningless with regard to that application.

Why are SAR measurements meaningless?

Dr. Marino:
Several reasons. First you need to understand where SAR came from. I was there when SAR was invented. Richard Phillips, Don Justesen, Saul Michaelson, Herman Schwann, these were men who created SAR, whose mind gave rise to it. And the reason they did was because they were interested in developing microwave ovens and in understanding how to cook meat. And it’s useful for understanding how to cook meat. But it has no application whatsoever, that I have ever seen suggested or advanced, for understanding mobile phones. SAR works for dead muscle. It has just no applicability in my opinion for live brain.

Why are SAR measurements not applicable to the live brain?

Dr. Marino:
Because the health hazards associated with mobile phone fields have nothing to do with heat. So it makes no sense to say, “I have a really great way of measuring heat” when the measurement of heat is irrelevant to understanding health hazards. Any measurement that you make that has no connection with what you’re interested in is just a waste of time. SAR can produce a lot of data and when the calculations of SAR are done they can produce beautiful pictures but the pictures are arbitrary and the measurements are meaningless. It’s quite clear that that’s the case.

Prof. Trevor Marshall, PhD States the Truth:
“The brain is not acting as a mass being heated, the brain is acting as a radio receiver.”

Dr. Trevor Marshall: How Radio Waves Make You Sicker
Dr. Trevor Marshall: Electrosmog Radiation – Effects

Windheim Proves That The Emperor Has No Clothes

Nov 28, 2018: William F. Hammett, Professional Electrical Engineer
Spreads Industry Propaganda on Nov 28, 2018 in Elk Grove, CA (39:04 to 43:50)
Nov 28, 2018: Eric Windheim, Certified Electromagnetic Radiation Specialist
Tells the Truth on Nov 28, 2018 in Elk Grove, CA (3:02:23 to 3:07:40)

Biologically-Based RF Microwave Radiation Exposure Guidelines

BioInitiative, 2019: “A scientific benchmark of 30 µW/m² for lowest observed effect level for RF microwave radiation is based on mobile phone base station-level studies. Applying a ten-fold reduction to compensate for the lack of long-term exposure (to provide a safety buffer for chronic exposure) or for children as a sensitive subpopulation yields a 3 to 6 µW/m² RF Microwave Radiation exposure guideline”

Similar scientifically-based RF Microwave Radiation Exposure Guidelines are published by the International Institute for Building-Biology & Ecology:

No Hazard

Slight Hazard

Severe Hazard

Extreme Hazard

< 0.1 µW/m²

0.1 µW/m² to 10 µW/m²

10 µW/m² to 1,000 µW/m²

> 1,000 µW/m²

  • µW/m² = millionths of a Watt per square meter (a measurement of power flux density)
  • Power flux density (PFD) = the amount of electrical power that flows through a unit area: expressed as microWatts (µW) per square meter (m²).
  • PFD measures only the rate of electrical power, NOT the total electrical power delivered over time, which requires the rate to be multiplied by the time of exposure and then requires reporting the results in a more relevant unit: µW-seconds/m² or µJoules/m²
  • Average µW/m² readings, as specified by the FCC, significantly under-report the levels of pulsed, data-modulated, RF microwave radiation exposures for two reasons —
  • Peak RF microwave radiation exposures meter 100x–1000x higher than average RF microwave radiation for data-carrying, modulated, high-crest signals like Wi-Fi, 4G/LTE and 5G because of the duty cycle, inherent in these RF signals. Inexplicably, the FCC RF microwave radiation exposure guidelines only consider average RF microwave radiation exposures, which is a significant error because living organisms’ biology reacts to the sharp changes of RF microwave radiation from zero to peak levels and back again. This is more fully explained here: Palo Alto Whitewashes RF Microwave Radiation Exposure Hazards
  • The FCC RF microwave radiation exposure guidelines consider neither the time of exposure nor the total electrical power delivered over time, which is utter nonsense and scientifically unsound. This is more fully explained here: RF Microwave Radiation Counter.

Signal Strength RF Microwave Radiation Exposure Guidelines

dBm (decibel-milliwatts) is an abbreviation for the power ratio in decibels (dB) of the measured power referenced to one milliwatt (1 mW = 1/1,000 of a Watt). It is used in radio, microwave and fiber-optic communication networks as a convenient measure of absolute power because of its capability to express both very large and very small values in a short form. The following data is based on that published in the Cornet ED-85X Manual; the meter’s antenna is centered at 2,450 MHz and can meter RF Microwave Radiation from 700 MHz to 6,000 MHz.

dBm Power Density Comparison See Case No. 18-1051, Mozilla v FCC
0 dBm 580,000 µW/m² 322,000,000x higher Land of . . .
-5 dBm 180,000 µW/m² 100,000,000x higher

Land of

(No 1996-TCA Preemption)

-10 dBm 58,000 µW/m²    
-15 dBm 18,000 µW/m² 10,000,000x higher  
-20 dBm 5,800 µW/m²    
-25 dBm 1,800 µW/m² 1,000,000x higher  
-30 dBm 580 µW/m²    
-35 dBm 180 µW/m² 100,000x higher  
-40 dBm 58 µW/m²    
-45 dBm 18 µW/m² 10,000x higher  
-50 dBm 5.8 µW/m²    
-55 dBm 1.8 µW/m² 1,000x higher  
-60 dBm 0.58 µW/m²    
-65 dBm 0.18 µW/m² 100x higher  
-70 dBm .058 µW/m²    
-75 dBm .018 µW/m² 10x higher

Land of

(1996-TCA Premption)

-80 dBm .0058 µW/m²    
85 dBm 0.0018 µW/m² 5 Bars on a cell phone  
-90 dBm 0.00058 µW/m²    
-95 dBm 0.00018 µW/m² 1/10 lower  
-100 dBm 0.000058 µW/m²    
-105 dBm 0.000018 µW/m² 1/100 lower  
-110 dBm 0.0000058 µW/m²    
-115 dBm 0.0000018 µW/m² 1/1,000 lower  
-120 dBm 0.00000058 µW/m²    
-125 dBm 0.00000018 µW/m² 1/10,000 lower  

Conclusion: 0.002 µW/m² (-85 dBm) is all the RF microwave radiation that is needed for strong cellular service in a residential neighborhood. A locality can set a maximum power output limit from all frequencies/antennas from a WTF in the public rights-of-way at 0.1 Watt of Effective Radiated Power (ERP) because that provides -85 dBm signal strength at a ½-mile down the street, with five bars on a cell phone and everyone can make a call.

  • 0.002 µW/m² is 5 billion (5,000,000,000) times lower than the scientifically-unsound, FCC RF microwave radiation maximum public exposure guideline of 10,000,000 µW/m².
  • 0.002 µW/m² is still 2 billion (2,000,000,000) times higher than the PicoWatt (0.000000000001 Watt) electrical rates of power that human cell membranes use in regulating many key biological functions.

The simple math, above, clearly explains why Close Proximity Microwave Radiation Antennas (CPMRA) are hazardous and should not be allowed in public rights-of-way in residential zones.

Typical Signal Strengths
From BioInitiative RF Color Charts

47 CFR 2.1091 – Radiofrequency radiation exposure evaluation: mobile devices.

§ 2.1091

(d) The limits to be used for evaluation are specified in §1.1310 of this chapter. All unlicensed personal communications service (PCS) devices and unlicensed NII devices shall be subject to the limits for general population/uncontrolled exposure.

   (1) For purposes of analyzing mobile transmitting devices under the occupational/controlled criteria specified in § 1.1310 of this chapter, time-averaging provisions of the guidelines may be used in conjunction with typical maximum duty factors to determine maximum likely exposure levels.

   (2) Time-averaging provisions may not be used in determining typical exposure levels for devices intended for use by consumers in general population/uncontrolled environments as defined in § 1.1310 of this chapter. However, "source-based" time-averaging based on an inherent property or duty-cycle of a device is allowed. An example of this is the determination of exposure from a device that uses digital technology such as a time-division multiple-access (TDMA) scheme for transmission of a signal. In general, maximum average power levels must be used to determine compliance.

FCC RF-EMR Exposure Guideline Differences Among 4G/5G Wavelengths/Frequencies

YearOrganizationWavelengthsFrequenciesVelocityPower DensityDescription
1996FCC22.6600671,000,0004,000,000MPE for general population/uncontrolled exposure (time-averaged)
1996FCC19.4700671,000,0004,666,667MPE for general population/uncontrolled exposure (time-averaged)
1996FCC17.0800671,000,0005,333,333MPE for general population/uncontrolled exposure (time-averaged)
1996FCC15.1900671,000,0006,000,000MPE for general population/uncontrolled exposure (time-averaged)
1996FCC13.51,000671,000,0006,666,667MPE for general population/uncontrolled exposure (time-averaged)
1996FCC12.31,100671,000,0007,333,333MPE for general population/uncontrolled exposure (time-averaged)
1996FCC11.31,200671,000,0008,000,000MPE for general population/uncontrolled exposure (time-averaged)
1996FCC10.41,300671,000,0008,666,667MPE for general population/uncontrolled exposure (time-averaged)
1996FCC9.61,400671,000,0009,333,333MPE for general population/uncontrolled exposure (time-averaged)
1996FCC9.01,500671,000,00010,000,000MPE for general population/uncontrolled exposure (time-averaged)
1996FCC8.5 to 0.11,600 to 100,000671,000,00010,000,000MPE for general population/uncontrolled exposure (time-averaged)
2012BioIntiative22.6 to 9.0600 to 1,500671,000,0003 to 6MPE for general population to pulsed, data-modulated RF microwave radation (peak)
2012BioIntiative8.5 to 0.11,600 to 100,000671,000,0003 to 6MPE for general population to pulsed, data-modulated RF microwave radation (peak)
  • FCC = Federal Communications Commission
  • MHz = MegaHertz or thousands of times per second
  • mph = miles per hour
  • MPE = Maximum Public Exposure
  • µW/m² = a rate of exposure for an unlimited amount of time (not total exposure in a set period of time) in millionths of a Watt (or microWatts) spread over a square meter

FCC Guidelines for Human Exposure to Radiofrequency Microwave Radiation (‘RMR’)
Reported as Average RMR

Frequency range (MHz) Electric field strength (V/m) Magnetic field strength (A/m) Average Power density (µW/m²) Averaging time (minutes)
0.30-1.34 614 1.63 (1,000,000,000)* 30
1.34-30.00 824/f 2.19/f (1,800,000,000/f²)* 30
1.3 1,000,000,000 30
1.5 800,000,000 30
3.0 200,000,000 30
10.0 18,000,000 30
15.0 8,000,000 30
25.0 2,880,000 30
30-300 27.5 0.073 2,000,000 30
300-1,500 (f/1500)*10 million 30
600 4,000,000 30
700 4,670,000 30
800 5,330,000 30
900 6,000,000 30
1,000 6,670,000 30
1,250 8,330,000 30
1,500-100,000 10,000,000 30
*Plane-wave equivalent power density; f = frequency in MHz;

FCC Guidelines for Human Exposure to Radiofrequency Microwave Radiation
Translated to Peak RMR, which is at least 10x to 100x higher than Average RMR

Frequency range (MHz) Electric field strength (V/m) Magnetic field strength (A/m) Average Power density (µW/m²) Averaging time (minutes)
0.30-1.34 (1,000,000,000) x 100* 30
1.34-30.00 (1,800,000,000/f²) x 100* 30
1.3 100,000,000,000 30
1.5 80,000,000,000 30
3.0 20,000,000,000 30
10.0 1,800,000,000 30
15.0 800,000,000 30
25.0 288,000,000 30
30-300 200,000,000 30
300-1,500 (f/1500)* 1 billion 30
600 400,000,000 30
700 467,000,000 30
800 533,000,000 30
900 600,000,000 30
1,000 667,000,000 30
1,250 833,000,000 30
1,500-100,000 1,000,000,000 30
*Plane-wave equivalent power density; f = frequency in MHz; 1 µW/m² average RFR = 100 µW/m² peak RFR

BioIntiative Guidelines for Human Exposure to Radiofrequency Microwave Radiation
Reported as Peak RMR

Frequency range (MHz) Electric field strength (V/m) Magnetic field strength (A/m) Power density (µW/m²) Averaging time (minutes)
0.30-1.34 5* N/A
1.34-30.00 5 N/A
1.3 5 N/A
1.5 5 N/A
3.0 5 N/A
10.0 5 N/A
15.0 5 N/A
25.0 5 N/A
30-300 5 N/A
300-1,500 5 N/A
600 5 N/A
700 5 N/A
800 5 N/A
900 5 N/A
1,000 5 N/A
1,250 5 N/A
1,500-100,000 5 N/A
*Recommendation is 3 to 6 µW/m²; mid-point is 4.5 µW/m², which rounds up to 5 µW/m²; f = frequency in MHz;

Link to the 1986 National Commission on Radiation Protection document (NCRP Report No. 86, Biological Effects and Exposure Criteria for Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields), NCRP-86.pdf, used by the FCC to set its pulsed, data-modulated, Radio-frequency Electromagnetic Microwave Radiation (RF-EMR) exposure guideline discussed negative health consequences at many different power levels of RF-EMR exposures — at power levels high enough to heat living tissue and at power levels much, much lower than that.