Titles 47 and 42 of United States Code
Table of Contents for Wireless Telecommunications Facilities (WTFs) Code
- A. Link to Title 47 U.S. Code § 151 Purposes of Federal Communications Commission.
- B. Link to Title 47 U.S. Code § 332 Mobile services.
- C. Link to – § 332(c) Regulatory treatment of mobile services
- D. Link to – – § 332(c)(3) State and local preemption
- E. Link to – – – § 332(c)(3)(7) Preservation of local zoning authority
- F. Link to – – – – § 332(c)(3)(7)(B) Limitations: "placement, construction, modification and
- G. Link to – – – – – § 332(c)(3)(7)(B)(iv) on the basis of the "environmental effects" of radio-frequency emissions . . .
- H. Link to – – – – § 332(c)(3)(7)(C) Definitions
- I. Link to – § 254(k) Universal service – Subsidy of competitive services prohibited
- J. Link to – § 153 Definitions (again)
- K. Link to – § 615b Definitions (yet again)
- L. Link to Title 42 U.S. Code § 12102 Definition of disability — includes Electromagnetic Sensitivity (EMS):
(3% of CA population in 1998, approaching 15–30% of population in 2019)
A. U.S. Code Title 47 § 151 Purposes of Federal Communications Commission.
For the purpose of regulating
- interstate commerce and
- foreign commerce
. . . in communication by wire and radio
. . . so as to make available, so far as possible, to all the people of the United States without discrimination on the basis of race, color, religion, national origin, or sex, a rapid, efficient, Nation-wide, and world-wide wire and radio communication service with adequate facilities at reasonable charges,
- for the purpose of the national defense,
- for the purpose of promoting safety of life and property
. . . through the use of wire and radio communications,
. . . and for the purpose of securing a more effective execution of this policy by centralizing authority heretofore granted by law to several agencies and by granting additional authority with respect to interstate and foreign commerce in wire and radio communication, there is created a commission to be known as the “Federal Communications Commission”, which shall be constituted as hereinafter provided, and which shall execute and enforce the provisions of this chapter.
(June 19, 1934, ch. 652, title I, § 1, 48 Stat. 1064; May 20, 1937, ch. 229, § 1, 50 Stat. 189; Pub. L. 104–104, title I, § 104, Feb. 8, 1996, 110 Stat. 86.)
Note: the FCC’s purpose does not grant the agency authority over matters of intrastate commerce.
B. U.S. Code Title 47 § 332 Mobile services.
LII –> U.S. Code –> Title 47. TELECOMMUNICATIONS –> Chapter 5. WIRE OR RADIO COMMUNICATION –> Subchapter III. SPECIAL PROVISIONS RELATING TO RADIO –> Part I. General Provisions –> Section 332. Mobile services
(a) Factors which Commission must consider
(1) promote the safety of life and property;
(2) improve the efficiency of spectrum use and reduce the regulatory burden upon spectrum users, based upon sound engineering principles, user operational requirements, and marketplace demands;
(3) encourage competition and provide services to the largest feasible number of users; or
(4) increase interservice sharing opportunities between private mobile services and other services.
. . .
(c) Regulatory treatment of mobile services
(1) Common carrier treatment of commercial mobile services
(A) A person engaged in the provision of a service that is a commercial mobile service shall, insofar as such person is so engaged, be treated as a common carrier for purposes of this chapter, except for such provisions of subchapter II as the Commission may specify by regulation as inapplicable to that service or person. In prescribing or amending any such regulation, the Commission may not specify any provision of section 201, 202, or 208 of this title, and may specify any other provision only if the Commission determines that —
(i) enforcement of such provision is not necessary in order to ensure that the charges, practices, classifications, or regulations for or in connection with that service are just and reasonable and are not unjustly or unreasonably discriminatory;
(ii) enforcement of such provision is not necessary for the protection of consumers; and
(iii) specifying such provision is consistent with the public interest.
(B) Upon reasonable request of any person providing commercial mobile service, the Commission shall order a common carrier to establish physical connections with such service pursuant to the provisions of section 201 of this title. Except to the extent that the Commission is required to respond to such a request, this subparagraph shall not be construed as a limitation or expansion of the Commission’s authority to order interconnection pursuant to this chapter.
(C) As a part of making a determination with respect to the public interest under subparagraph (A)(iii), the Commission shall consider whether the proposed regulation (or amendment thereof) will promote competitive market conditions, including the extent to which such regulation (or amendment) will enhance competition among providers of commercial mobile services. If the Commission determines that such regulation (or amendment) will promote competition among providers of commercial mobile services, such determination may be the basis for a Commission finding that such regulation (or amendment) is in the public interest.
(D The Commission shall, not later than 180 days after August 10, 1993, complete a rulemaking required to implement this paragraph with respect to the licensing of personal communications services, including making any determinations required by subparagraph (C).
(2) Non-common carrier treatment of private mobile services — A person engaged in the provision of a service that is a private mobile service shall not, insofar as such person is so engaged, be treated as a common carrier for any purpose under this chapter. A common carrier (other than a person that was treated as a provider of a private land mobile service prior to August 10, 1993) shall not provide any dispatch service on any frequency allocated for common carrier service, except to the extent such dispatch service is provided on stations licensed in the domestic public land mobile radio service before January 1, 1982. The Commission may by regulation terminate, in whole or in part, the prohibition contained in the preceding sentence if the Commission determines that such termination will serve the public interest.
(3) State preemption
(A) Notwithstanding sections 152(b) and 221(b) of this title, no State or local government shall have any authority to regulate the entry of or the rates charged by any commercial mobile service or any private mobile service,except that this paragraph shall not prohibit a State from regulating the other terms and conditions of commercial mobile services.
Nothing in this subparagraph shall exempt providers of commercial mobile services (where such services are a substitute for land line telephone exchange service for a substantial portion of the communications within such State) from requirements imposed by a State commission on all providers of telecommunications services necessary to ensure the universal availability of telecommunications service at affordable rates. Notwithstanding the first sentence of this subparagraph, a State may petition the Commission for authority to regulate the rates for any commercial mobile service and the Commission shall grant such petition if such State demonstrates that —
(i) market conditions with respect to such services fail to protect subscribers adequately from unjust and unreasonable rates or rates that are unjustly or unreasonably discriminatory; or
(ii) such market conditions exist and such service is a replacement for land line telephone exchange service for a substantial portion of the telephone land line exchange service within such State.
The Commission shall provide reasonable opportunity for public comment in response to such petition, and shall, within 9 months after the date of its submission, grant or deny such petition. If the Commission grants such petition, the Commission shall authorize the State to exercise under State law such authority over rates, for such periods of time, as the Commission deems necessary to ensure that such rates are just and reasonable and not unjustly or unreasonably discriminatory
(B) If a State has in effect on June 1, 1993, any regulation concerning the rates for any commercial mobile service offered in such State on such date, such State may, no later than 1 year after August 10, 1993, petition the Commission requesting that the State be authorized to continue exercising authority over such rates. If a State files such a petition, the State’s existing regulation shall, notwithstanding subparagraph (A), remain in effect until the Commission completes all action (including any reconsideration) on such petition. The Commission shall review such petition in accordance with the procedures established in such subparagraph, shall complete all action (including any reconsideration) within 12 months after such petition is filed, and shall grant such petition if the State satisfies the showing required under subparagraph (A)(i) or (A)(ii). If the Commission grants such petition, the Commission shall authorize the State to exercise under State law such authority over rates, for such period of time, as the Commission deems necessary to ensure that such rates are just and reasonable and not unjustly or unreasonably discriminatory. After a reasonable period of time, as determined by the Commission, has elapsed from the issuance of an order under subparagraph (A) or this subparagraph, any interested party may petition the Commission for an order that the exercise of authority by a State pursuant to such subparagraph is no longer necessary to ensure that the rates for commercial mobile services are just and reasonable and not unjustly or unreasonably discriminatory. The Commission shall provide reasonable opportunity for public comment in response to such petition, and shall, within 9 months after the date of its submission, grant or deny such petition in whole or in part.
(4) Regulatory treatment of communications satellite corporation — Nothing in this subsection shall be construed to alter or affect the regulatory treatment required by title IV of the Communications Satellite Act of 1962 [47 U.S.C. 741 et seq.] of the corporation authorized by title III of such Act [47 U.S.C. 731 et seq.].
(5) Space segment capacity — Nothing in this section shall prohibit the Commission from continuing to determine whether the provision of space segment capacity by satellite systems to providers of commercial mobile services shall be treated as common carriage.
(6) Foreign ownership — The Commission, upon a petition for waiver filed within 6 months after August 10, 1993, may waive the application of section 310(b) of this title to any foreign ownership that lawfully existed before May 24, 1993, of any provider of a private land mobile service that will be treated as acommon carrier as a result of the enactment of the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1993, but only upon the following conditions:
(A) The extent of foreign ownership interest shall not be increased above the extent which existed on May 24, 1993.
(B) Such waiver shall not permit the subsequent transfer of ownership to any other person in violation of section 310(b) of this title.
(7) Preservation of local zoning authority [Note: Please compare this to Fall 1995 Version of Telecommunications Act, HR.1555; Conclusion: regulation of the operations of Personal Wireless Telecommunications Facilities was never preempted from local zoning authority. ]
(A) General authority — Except as provided in this paragraph, nothing in this chapter shall limit or affect the authority of a State or local government or instrumentality thereof over decisions regarding the placement, construction, and modification of personal wireless service facilities.
(i) The regulation of the placement, construction, and modification of personal wireless service facilities by any State or local government or instrumentality thereof—
(I) shall not unreasonably discriminate among providers of functionally equivalent services; and
(II) shall not prohibit or have the effect of prohibiting the provision of personal wireless services.
(ii) A State or local government or instrumentality thereof shall act on any request for authorization to place, construct, or modify personal wireless service facilities within a reasonable period of time after the request is duly filed with such government or instrumentality, taking into account the nature and scope of such request.
(iii) Any decision by a State or local government or instrumentality thereof to deny a request to place, construct, or modify personal wireless service facilities shall be in writing and supported by substantial evidence contained in a written record.
(iv) No State or local government or instrumentality thereof may regulate the placement, construction, and modification of personal wireless service facilities on the basis of the environmental effects of radio-frequency emissions to the extent that such facilities comply with the Commission’s regulations concerning such emissions.
(v) Any person adversely affected by any final action or failure to act by a State or local government or any instrumentality thereof that is inconsistent with this subparagraph may, within 30 days after such action or failure to act, commence an action in any court of competent jurisdiction. The court shall hear and decide such action on an expedited basis. Any person adversely affected by an act or failure to act by a State or local government or any instrumentality thereof that is inconsistent with clause (iv) may petition the Commission for relief.
(C) For purposes of this paragraph —
(i) the term “personal wireless services” means
– commercial mobile services,
– unlicensed wireless services, and
– common carrier wireless exchange access services;
(ii) the term “personal wireless service facilities” means facilities for the provision of personal wireless services; and
(iii) the term “unlicensed wireless service” means the offering of telecommunications services using duly authorized devices which do not require individual licenses, but does not mean the provision of direct-to-home satellite services(as defined in section 303(v) of this title).
(8) Mobile services access — A person engaged in the provision of commercial mobile services, insofar as such person is so engaged, shall not be required to provide equal access to common carriers for the provision of telephone toll services. If the Commission determines that subscribers to such services are denied access to the provider of telephone toll services of the subscribers’ choice, and that such denial is contrary to the public interest, convenience, and necessity, then the Commission shall prescribe regulations to afford subscribers unblocked access to the provider of telephone toll services of the subscribers’ choice through the use of a carrier identification code assigned to such provider or other mechanism. The requirements for unblocking shall not apply to mobile satellite services unless the Commission finds it to be in the public interest to apply such requirements to such services.
(d) Definitions For purposes of this section—
(1) the term “commercial mobile service” means any mobile service (as defined in section 153 of this title) that is provided for profit and makes interconnected service available (A) to the public or (B) to such classes of eligible users as to be effectively available to a substantial portion of the public, as specified by regulation by the Commission;
(2) the term “interconnected service” means service that is interconnected with the public switched network (as such terms are defined by regulation by the Commission) or service for which a request for interconnection is pending pursuant to subsection (c)(1)(B); and
(3) the term “private mobile service” means any mobile service (as defined in section 153 of this title) that is not a commercial mobile service or the functional equivalent of a commercial mobile service, as specified by regulation by the Commission.
(June 19, 1934, ch. 652, title III, § 332, formerly § 331, as added Pub. L. 97–259, title I, § 120(a), Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 1096; renumbered § 332, Pub. L. 102–385, § 25(b), Oct. 5, 1992, 106 Stat. 1502; amended Pub. L. 103–66, title VI, § 6002(b)(2)(A), Aug. 10, 1993, 107 Stat. 392; Pub. L. 104–104, § 3(d)(2), title VII, §§ 704(a), 705, Feb. 8, 1996, 110 Stat. 61, 151, 153; Pub. L. 115–141, div. P, title IV, § 402(g), Mar. 23, 2018, 132 Stat. 1089.)
I. Title 47 U.S. Code § 254(k) Subsidy of competitive services prohibited.
A telecommunications carrier may not use services that are not competitive to subsidize services that are subject to competition. The Commission, with respect to interstate services, and the States, with respect to intrastate services, shall establish any necessary cost allocation rules, accounting safeguards, and guidelines to ensure that services included in the definition of universal service bear no more than a reasonable share of the joint and common costs of facilities used to provide those services. [Note: Current law suit IRREGULATORS v. FCC aims to end this illegal cross-subsidy scheme ]
J. Title 47 U.S. Code § 153 Definitions.
(50) Telecommunications — The term “telecommunications” means the transmission, between or among points specified by the user, of information of the user’s choosing, without change in the form or content of the information as sent and received.
(53) Telecommunications service — The term “telecommunications service” means the offering of telecommunications for a fee directly to the public, or to such classes of users as to be effectively available directly to the public, regardless of the facilities used.
(24) Information service — The term “information service” means the offering of a capability for generating, acquiring, storing, transforming, processing, retrieving, utilizing, or making available information via telecommunications, and includes electronic publishing, but does not include any use of any such capability for the management, control, or operation of a telecommunications system or the management of a telecommunications service.
(33) Mobile service — The term “mobile service” means a radio communication service carried on between mobile stations or receivers and land stations, and by mobile stations communicating among themselves, and includes
(A) both one-way and two-way radio communication services
(B) a mobile service which provides a regularly interacting group of base, mobile, portable, and associated control and relay stations (whether licensed on an individual, cooperative, or multiple basis) for private one-way or two-way land mobile radio communications by eligible users over designated areas of operation, and
(C) any service for which a license is required in a personal communications service established pursuant to the proceeding entitled “Amendment to the Commission’s Rules to Establish New Personal Communications Services” (GEN Docket No. 90–314; ET Docket No. 92–100), or any successor proceeding.
(1) Advanced communications services
(A) interconnected VoIP service
(B) non-interconnected VoIP service
(C) electronic messaging service
(D) interoperable video conferencing service
Other Relevant Definitions
(11) Common carrier — The term “common carrier” or “carrier” means any person engaged as a common carrier for hire, in interstate or foreign communication by wire or radio or interstate or foreign radio transmission of energy, except where reference is made to common carriers not subject to this chapter; but a person engaged in radio broadcasting shall not, insofar as such person is so engaged, be deemed a common carrier.
. . .
(19) Electronic messaging service — The term “electronic messaging service” means a service that provides real-time or near real-time non-voice messages in text form between individuals over communications networks.
. . .
(25) Interconnected VoIP service — The term “interconnected VoIP service” has the meaning given such term under section 9.3 of title 47, Code of Federal Regulations, as such section may be amended from time to time.
. . .
(28) Interstate communication — The term “interstate communication” or “interstate transmission” means communication or transmission
(A) from any State, Territory, or possession of the United States (other than the Canal Zone), or the District of Columbia, to any other State, Territory, or possession of the United States (other than the Canal Zone), or the District of Columbia,
(B) from or to the United States to or from the Canal Zone, insofar as such communication or transmission takes place within the United States, or
(C) between points within the United States but through a foreign country; but shall not, with respect to the provisions of subchapter II of this chapter (other than section 223 of this title), include wire or[ radio communication between points in the same State, Territory, or possession of the United States, or the District of Columbia, through any place outside thereof, if such communication is regulated by a[ State commission.
. . .
(36) Non-interconnected VoIP service
(A) means a service that —
(i) enables real-time voice communications that originate from or terminate to the user’s location using Internet protocol or any successor protocol; and
(ii) requires Internet protocol compatible customer premises equipment; and
(B) does not include any service that is an interconnected VoIP service.
. . .
(39) Person — The term “person” includes an individual, partnership, association, joint-stock company, trust, or corporation.
. . .
(48) State commission — The term “State commission” means the commission, board, or official (by whatever name designated) which under the laws of any State has regulatory jurisdiction with respect to intrastate operations of carriers.
(59) Wire communication — The term “wire communication” or “communication by wire” means the transmission of writing, signs, signals, pictures, and sounds of all kinds by aid of wire, cable, or other like connection between the points of origin and reception of such transmission, including all instrumentalities, facilities, apparatus, and services (among other things, the receipt, forwarding, and delivery of communications) incidental to such transmission.
K. Title 47 U.S. Code § 615b Definitions.
(4) Wireless carrier — The term “wireless carrier” means a provider of commercial mobile services or any other radio communications service that the Federal Communications Commission requires to provide wireless 9–1–1 service.
(8) IP-enabled voice service — The term “IP-enabled voice service” has the meaning given the term “interconnected VoIP service” by section 9.3 of the Federal Communications Commission’s regulations (47 CFR 9.3).
47 CFR § 9.3
Interconnected VoIP service. An interconnected Voice over Internet protocol (VoIP) service is a service that:
(1) Enables real-time, two-way voice communications;
(2) Requires a broadband connection from the user’s location;
(3) Requires Internet protocol-compatible customer premises equipment (CPE); and
(4) Permits users generally to receive calls that originate on the public switched telephone network and to terminate calls to the public switched telephone network.
. . . and, finally, this critically important definition:
Title 42 U.S. Code § 12102 Definition of disability.
(A) a physical or mental impairment that substantially limits one or more major life activities of such individual;
(B) a record of such an impairment; or
(C) being regarded as having such an impairment (as described in paragraph (3)).
(2) Major Life Activities
(A) In General — For purposes of paragraph (1), major life activities include, but are not limited to, caring for oneself, performing manual tasks, seeing, hearing, eating, sleeping, walking, standing, lifting, bending, speaking, breathing, learning, reading, concentrating, thinking, communicating, and working.
(B) Major bodily functions — For purposes of paragraph (1), a major life activity also includes the operation of a major bodily function, including but not limited to, functions of the immune system, normal cell growth, digestive, bowel, bladder, neurological, brain, respiratory, circulatory, endocrine, and reproductive functions.
(3) Regarded as having such an impairment — For purposes of paragraph (1)(C):
(A) An individual meets the requirement of “being regarded as having such an impairment” if the individual establishes that he or she has been subjected to an action prohibited under this chapter because of an actual or perceived physical or mental impairment whether or not the impairment limits or is perceived to limit a major life activity.
(B) Paragraph (1)(C) shall not apply to impairments that are transitory and minor. A transitory impairment is an impairment with an actual or expected duration of 6 months or less.
(4) Rules of construction regarding the definition of disability. — TThe definition of “disability” in paragraph (1) shall be construed in accordance with the following:
(A) The definition of disability in this chapter shall be construed in favor of broad coverage of individuals under this chapter, to the maximum extent permitted by the terms of this chapter.
(B) The term “substantially limits” shall be interpreted consistently with the findings and purposes of the ADA Amendments Act of 2008.
(C) An impairment that substantially limits one major life activity need not limit other major life activities in order to be considered a disability.
(D) An impairment that is episodic or in remission is adisability if it would substantially limit a major life activity when active.
(i) The determination of whether an impairment substantially limits a major life activity shall be made without regard to the ameliorative effects of mitigating measures such as —
(I) medication, medical supplies, equipment, or appliances, low-vision devices (which do not include ordinary eyeglasses or contact lenses), prosthetics including limbs and devices, hearing aids and cochlear implants or other implantable hearing devices, mobility devices, or oxygen therapy equipment and supplies;
(II) use of assistive technology;
(III) reasonable accommodations or auxiliary aids or services; or
(IV) learned behavioral or adaptive neurological modifications.
(ii) The ameliorative effects of the mitigating measures of ordinary eyeglasses or contact lenses shall be considered in determining whether an impairment substantially limits a major life activity.
(iii) As used in this subparagraph—
(I) the term “ordinary eyeglasses or contact lenses” means lenses that are intended to fully correct visual acuity or eliminate refractive error; and
(II) the term “low-vision devices” means devices that magnify, enhance, or otherwise augment a visual image.
Common Symptoms of Electromagnetic Sensitivity/Microwave Radiation Sickness
|Headaches||Neurological problems||Bleeding from nose or ears|
|Tinnitus (ringing in the ears)||Altered brain development||Unexplained skin rashes|
|Sleeping Problems||Heart palpitations||Blood-brain Barrier Leaks|
|Concentration/Depression||Melatonin suppression||Chromosome aberrations|
|Memory problems||Hormone changes||Electromagnetic Sensitivity|
|Autism Spectrum Disorder||Sperm and ovary damage||Elevated cancer in children/adults|
2020 ICD-10-CM Diagnosis Codes
W90.0: Exposure to other Nonionizing Radiation — Radio-frequency Radiation
W90.0XXA . . . Exposure to Radio-frequency Radiation, initial encounter
- W90.0XXA is a billable/specific ICD-10-CM code that can be used to indicate a diagnosis for reimbursement purposes.
- The 2020 edition of ICD-10-CM W90.0XXA became effective on October 1, 2019.
- This is the American ICD-10-CM version of W90.0XXA – other international versions of ICD-10 W90.0XXA may differ
W90.0XXD . . . Exposure to Radio-frequency Radiation, subsequent encounter
- W90.0XXD is a billable/specific ICD-10-CM code that can be used to indicate a diagnosis for reimbursement purposes.
- The 2020 edition of ICD-10-CM W90.0XXD became effective on October 1, 2019.
- This is the American ICD-10-CM version of W90.0XXD – other international versions of ICD-10 W90.0XXD may differ.
W90.0XXS. . . Exposure to Radio-frequency Radiation, sequela
- W90.0XXS is a billable/specific ICD-10-CM code that can be used to indicate a diagnosis for reimbursement purposes.
- The 2020 edition of ICD-10-CM W90.0XXS became effective on October 1, 2019.
- This is the American ICD-10-CM version of W90.0XXS – other international versions of ICD-10 W90.0XXS may differ.
Code History: New Code in 2015 (first year of non-draft ICD-10-CM); renewed without change annually from 2016 through 2019