The City of Palo Alto is allowing the placement, construction and modification of 120+ so-called "Small Cell" Cell towers in the public rights of way in Palo Alto’s residential zones, while the City of Palo Alto ignores substantial evidence and their non-prempted duties to regulate the operations of these so-called "Small Cell" Cell towers.
When regulating the operations of the so-called "Small Cell" Cell towers in the public rights of way, the City has both the freedom and the duty to consider the latest science that establishes health hazards from RF Microwave Radiation exposures, including the following:
- 2017: Exposure to Magnetic Field Non-Ionizing Radiation and Miscarriage: A Prospective Cohort Study
- 2017: Measurements of Radiofrequency Radiation with a Body-Borne Exposimeter in Swedish Schools with Wi-Fi
- 2016: $25 million, 16-year US Government NIEHS study: National Toxicology Program Carcinogenesis Studies of Radiofrequency Microwave Radiation
- 2016: a study by Dr. Trevor Marshall, Electrosmog and Autoimmune Disease https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s12026-016-8825-7
- 2012: BioInitiative Report http://www.bioinitiative.org/conclusions/
- 2011: review by Yakymenko et al, Long-Term Exposure To Microwave Radiation Provokes Cancer Growth: Evidence From Radars And Mobile Communication Systems
The following study of 913 Northern California pregnant women (Kaiser Permante patients) — released online on 12/13/17, shows that the Palo Alto’s current Wireless Expansion plan in residential zones would result in hazards for pregnant women who, live, work in or visit the streets of Palo Alto — where magnetic field strength was measured at 5 mG on 4/21/17.
Exposure to Magnetic Field Non-Ionizing Radiation and Miscarriage: A Prospective Cohort Study
- Link: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-017-16623-8
- Authors: De-Kun Li, Hong Chen, Jeannette R. Ferber, Roxana Odouli & Charles Quesenberry
- Journal: Nature
- Funder: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS)
- Citation: Scientific Reports 7, Article number: 17541 (2017)
- Received: 14 August 2017
- Accepted: 10 November 2017
- Published online: 13 December 2017
Magnetic field (MF) non-ionizing radiation is widespread and everyone is exposed to some degree. This prospective cohort study of 913 pregnant women examined the association between high MF exposure and miscarriage risk. Cox (proportional hazards) regression was used to examine the association. After controlling for multiple other factors, women who were exposed to higher MF levels had 2.72 times the risk of miscarriage (hazard ratio = 2.72, 95% CI: 1.42–5.19) than those with lower MF exposure. The increased risk of miscarriage associated with high MF was consistently observed regardless of the sources of high MF. The association was much stronger if MF was measured on a typical day of participants’ pregnancies. The finding also demonstrated that accurate measurement of MF exposure is vital for examining MF health effects.
- Table 1: Characteristics of the Study Population by Daily Magnetic Field Exposure Level (Lowest or Higher Quartiles of MF 99th Percentile).
- Table 2: Exposure to High Magnetic Fields (MFs) During Pregnancy and the Risk of Miscarriage.
- Table 3: Exposure to High Magnetic Fields (MFs) During Pregnancy and the Risk of Miscarriage, Stratified by Number of Prior Miscarriages, MF Measured on Typical Days Only.
- Table 4: Exposure to High Magnetic Fields (MFs) During Pregnancy and the Risk of Miscarriage – Assessing Dose-Response, MF Measured on Typical Days Only.
This prospective cohort study was approved by the Kaiser Permanente Northern California (KPNC) Institutional Review Board and conducted among KPNC’s pregnant members in the San Francisco Bay Area, all of whom provided informed consent.
- Among 1,627 eligible pregnant women, 1,054 agreed to participate in the study
- All participating pregnant carried an EMDEX Lite meter from Enertech Consultants Inc. for 24 hours during pregnancy. The EMDEX Lite meter is specifically designed to measure MF, which is measured in milligauss (mG).
- MF measurement conducted on a typical day: a day reflecting participants’ typical pattern of work and leisure activities during pregnancy.
- Excluded 31 subjects who failed to carry the meter as instructed. We also excluded 107 subjects who had incomplete (<90% of their 24-hour measurements) MF measurement data. Those exclusions were made without knowledge of subjects’ pregnancy outcomes.
- Total of 913 subjects with valid MF measurements and pregnancy outcomes were included in the final analysis
- The low MF exposure group consisted of women whose 99th percentile of MF exposure levels was in the lowest quartile (<2.5 mG), while
- Those in the higher three quartiles (2.5 to 10.0 mG) were classified in the high MF exposure group.
[This] NIEHS-funded study provides additional evidence that exposure to high MF levels [2.5 to 10.0 mG] in pregnancy is associated with increased risk of miscarriage. This finding is also supported by four other studies published during the past 15 years that examined the relationship between high MF exposure and the risk of miscarriage.
. . . other studies examined the impact of EMF emitted from cell phones and wireless networks, and observed that more frequent cell phone use and close proximity to wireless base stations were both associated with an increased risk of miscarriage.
In this study, we found an almost three-fold increased risk of miscarriage if a pregnant woman was exposed to higher MF levels compared to women with lower MF exposure.
|Magnetic Field Level||Total N||Miscarriage N (%)||Hazard Ratio Comparison|
|Lowest quartile (<2.5 mG)||106||11 (10.4%)||Ref|
|Higher 3 quartiles (2.5 to 10.0 mG)||347||84 (24.2%)||2.72 (1.42–5.19)|
Implications of 2017 Dr. De-Kun Li Study for the City of Palo Alto